|Author||Topic: Use of 3D-Printed and 2D-Illustrated International Frontal Sinus|
|posted: 3/22/2022 at 6:00:46 PM ET|
Intricate anatomical details surround the structure of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, and no paranasal sinus is more complicated than the frontal sinus. 1 There are several anatomic variants in the frontal sinus drainage system, depending on the interaction between the drainage channel and surrounding structures and air cells. Frontal sinus cells have undergone changes in classification and nomenclature throughout time, and the International Frontal Sinus Anatomy Classification (IFAC) has lately attempted to give a more thorough and operationally applicable naming scheme for the numerous frontal sinus recess cells. 5 This degree of intricacy is a significant barrier for radiologic interpretation and endoscopic surgical dissection3 at all levels of education and experience. 6
Preoperative evaluation of the paranasal sinuses involves examination of imaging studies, most often computed tomography (CT) (CT).
For radiologists and surgeons alike, one of the most difficult tasks is to mentally merge the serial portions of the CT scan into a 3-dimensional (3D) spatial comprehension of the patient's anatomy.
7 If you fail to appropriately interpret a CT scan and adequately comprehend surgical frontal sinus architecture, the repercussions may vary from failure to properly perform surgery8 to surgical problems such as CSF fluid leak or harm to important neurovascular structures. 9
As a result, it is vital for the student to take use of all available instructional resources in order to promote the development of complete anatomic knowledge and surgical skill in this complicated region.
3D Product Modeling is a digital alternative to traditional photography for the purpose of creating lifestyle images of the things on display. It enables for everything from conceptualization to modification, including modifying textures, materials, and proportions, and so obtaining lifestyle modelling in a variety of scenario situations. The same model may be shown in a variety of locations, as seen in the example below, where a trailer is put up in both a beach and a grassland environment.
Several studies have looked at the knowledge acquisition of otolaryngology residents and fellows when it comes to endoscopic sinus surgery. Preoperative imaging checklist for endoscopic sinus surgery published by Error et al10; a sinus surgery task trainer produced by Harbison and colleagues11; and an approach to using 3-dimensional (3D) sinus imaging as an auxiliary to 2-dimensional (2D) sinus imaging described by Yao et al. 12 A study of members of the American Rhinologic Society who are active in resident education discovered that if a curriculum of validated simulators is built, it has the potential to enhance resident training in endoscopic sinus surgery and other procedures. 13 Chen et al14 created a "frontal sinus masterclass 3D Modeling Services in conceptualization," in which students studied scans using DICOM software and used pipe cleaners and wooden blocks to build the frontal sinus anatomy. This model was used in frontal sinus instruction especially. Thirty otolaryngology residents who finished the study reported receiving subjective benefits from the training, according to the researchers. In addition, there was an improvement in the residents' capacity to accurately answer complicated questions when they were asked. There were no similar studies discovered that looked at the topic of teaching frontal sinus anatomy to radiology residents.
Three-dimensional printing is a manufacturing technique in which materials are placed on top of one another in layers to create a three-dimensional item. Medical and otolaryngology applications include surgical planning, the manufacture of bespoke plates, screws, and surgical guides, the manufacture of customised functional biologic replacements, as well as patient education and trainee education. 15-18 No 3D-printed anatomical model of the frontal sinuses has been used in frontal sinus education to explain the different frontal drainage paths and variances in frontal sinus and recess cells as specified by the International Frontal Sinus Association (IFAC) system, however, as of yet. 19
Our study's goal is to make this new resource available and evaluate its value in comparison to existing 2D modelling techniques.
Anatomic models of the frontal sinuses were created from CT scans of chosen patients and then three-dimensionally printed in three dimensions. In summary, high-resolution CT scans of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses were obtained in the axial plane at 0.75 mm and reformatted in the sagittal and coronal planes after being acquired in the axial plane.
After an exemption was approved by the Institutional Review Board, the radiology information system was searched for CT images that did not show evidence of paranasal sinus illness or prior skull base surgery. Deidentified photos were transferred into Mimics (Materialise, Plymouth, Michigan), a CAD tool, where they were further processed and refined (computer-aided design). The pictures were then segmented to designate the anatomic region of interest—in this instance, the frontal sinus and accompanying cells—in order to proceed with further processing of the data. The air cells of the frontal sinus outflow tract were categorised and color-coded according to the International Federation of Air Cells (IFAC) cell type. 3D printing of the produced full-color models was then carried out using a Projet 660 printer (3D Systems, Rock Hill, South Carolina). VRML files are virtual reality models.
It was necessary to vacuum and brush away the support powder that had encased the item and served as support material throughout the printing process after it had been printed with pressured air. Last but not least, the delicate area was soaked in acrylic to offer extra stability while also increasing the colour brilliance. Seven different deidentified models were segmented and printed at 1.5 times their original size without any print build issues.
The printing procedure took an average of 3 hours 50 minutes, plus an additional hour for postprocessing. Several copies of four models, which collectively represented all of the IFAC cell types, were chosen to be produced in multiples.
|posted: 3/23/2022 at 1:18:38 AM ET|
I had a terrible feeling when I had that disease, I thought I was cured until I played tiny fishing for more than 10 hours a day and my health declined. Luckily I've made it so far
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